Archaeological Collection of the CSM RK concentrates in its collections materials on ancient and medieval history. Currently, the fund holds about 29 thousand artifacts.
Paleolithic (about 2.7 million years - 10 thousand BC) The archaeological collection includes artifacts of the ancient sites of human being of Caspian and Karatau ridge - a set of archaic stone tools - chopping, cut, cores, flakes, scrapers, showing the process of development and improvement of techniques for processing stone products: sandy, levallua, radial. The Copper Age (III early II millennium BC) cupper-stone century, the era of the discovery of the first metal and the manufacture of copper tools. This period is represented in the museum's unique collection of Botai settlement artifacts, northern Kazakhstan. Residents of the settlement were engaged in hunting for wild horses and first domesticated the horse. The collection contains the bones of animals, hunting tools: bolas (projectiles for hunting), stone dart tips, arrows, axes; gun from the shoulder bones of animals: crescent-shaped softer, scrapers with serrated edge for processing animal skins, punches, ceramic vessels.
Bronze Age (XIX – IX cc. BC).
During this period a person has mastered the technology for obtaining of bronze - an alloy of copper and tin or arsenic. Bright culture of this time called as Andronov (XVIII -XII centuries BC). Carriers of Andronov culture settled in villages along the shores of Steppe Rivers, engaged in cattle breeding, agriculture, metallurgy, bronze and ceramic production. Collection of the Bronze Age collected on archaeological expeditions and donations are about 2 thousand artifacts from the central, eastern, western, southern and south-eastern regions of Kazakhstan. Collection. Bone artifacts from Myrzhyk settlement made with great skill and fine ornament - a bone plates, buttons, tubes and figured psalias are of particular interest. From casual finds – treasure of bronze items from Taldy-Kurgan region, Keiton village and others.
The culture of the early nomads
Saka era (VIII c. BC - III c. AD) is characterized by the opening and the beginning of the widespread use of iron. At that time, the territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited by tribes of Saks and Sauromats. The basis of the social economy was nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralism. Saka were united into tribal unions, which were headed by leaders who combine secular and religious functions. It was the time of origin of the state and the appearance of writing. An iconic symbol of the ideology of Saka became the Scythian-Siberian "animal" style, realistic on execution and mythological content. Material and spiritual culture decorated in this tradition. Archaeological Collection of early nomads has approximately 10 thousand artifacts. Early Iron Age is represented by materials from different regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan, giving extensive information on Saks, Wusuns, Kangui, Huns and Sarmatians based on the territory of Kazakhstan from the VIII century BC that occupy a special place in the history of political and cultural life of Kazakhstan. There are Zhalauly treasure (VIII-VII centuries BC), found by chance in the Zhalauly village, Kegen (now Raiymbek) district, Almaty region, which contained gold items. The largest of the ornaments - pectoral - in the crescent form. Among the accidental finds of Zhetysu most valuable is a collection of copper cauldrons and bronze censers.
Culture of Kangui of the South Kazakhstan is presented by artifacts from excavations of burial grounds and settlements in the Aris valley IV c. BC - IV c. AD. The collection includes the original ceramic with a characteristic set of forms and decorations, small plastic ornaments, arms, horse attribution, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figures, household items and cult, unique artifacts - paleographic material and much more. The letter is made on the surface of ceramic bricks, tables and identified as alphabetic-syllabic, on the Aramaic basis and recalls early Sogdian.
Middle Ages (VI - first half of the XV century). The archeology fund accumulated rich, various archaeological materials of the Middle Ages, making it possible to illustrate not only the main stages in the development of ethnic and socio-political history and culture of Kazakhstan as an important integral region of the Eurasian continent, but also to talk about the origin, formation and development of various forms of state in the region from Wusun state (Wusun-go), the first Turkic khaganates - before the Kazakh khanate (VI-XV centuries). Culture of ancient Turkic tribes of Kazakhstan VI-VIII centuries by the monuments of the cult of monumental sculpture, weapons, and items of jewelry, saddle and monuments of runic writing are represented.
Urban Culture IX-XII centuries materials of South Kazakhstan, Semirechensk archaeological expeditions, including artifacts from ancient settlements Aktobe, Taraz, Otrar oasis, Talgar are presented. There are glazed bowls with epigraphic, floral and geometric motifs, dastarkhan (table), hums, humchi, and water pipes - kuburs. Great importance for the development of urban culture played the Great Silk Road. The collection contains by unique items imported from China, Iran, India, Khwarizm. This is a piece of copper Iranian dishes, two cups of Chinese porcelain bowls, pieces of Chinese silk, and mirrors.
XIV-XV century develops a new architectural style. The progress of construction machinery in the XIV and XV century, especially found its expression in the improvement of arched-dome system, and the emergence of new coating materials, which is reflected in the architecture of the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yassawi in Turkestan. The material culture of this period are presented by glazed ceramics, tiles of the Khoja Ahmed Yassawi mausoleum in Turkestan.
Moreover, along the routes of the Silk Road spread different religions and beliefs: Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Manichaeism, Islam and Christianity (Nestorian). In the collection there are the gravestones of stones with inscriptions in Arabic, ancient Indian (Sanskrit) languages, Kairak with a cross and the Turko-Syrian epitaphs. The existence of Zoroastrianism indicates clay ossuaries from the city of Taraz.