Ethnographic collection

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Ethnographic collection

The museum has a unique collection of ethnographic items, with more than 24 thousand units objects. The collection has evolved from the beginning of existence of the museum. Much of the collection dates from the 19th-20th centuries, but there are items from the second half of the 18th century. The collection allows to present the life and culture of the Kazakh people and many of the objects are considered to be historical and cultural curiosities. Among ethnographic acquisitions of Regional Museum of Kazakhstan (Orenburg) are: "konek" (pail for mares milking); "kese-kap" (case for cups storage); "lauyk" – the Koran stand; "torsyk" (leather vessel for koumiss), headdress of Sultan Baimukhamed Aychuakov, bucket of ErZhanibek Berdauletuly, participant of fighting against Dzungar invaders are of the very first vintage exhibits.

 

Collection of Carpet-Felt Products

The Central State Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan has a large collection of carpet and felt products. The collection consists of the following groups: syrmak, tekemet, carpets, alasha, tuskіlem, korzhyn, ayakkap, bau-baskur, yurt decoration, tapestries, picture, reed mats.

Decorative and applied art of the Kazakhs exist from ancient times, therefore striking a variety of woven and felted items used in everyday life. Carpet and felt needed primarily for portable devices, dwelling of Kazakhs - yurt. The woven products, especially the carpets performed very important vital functions throughout the year, protecting the family of nomad both from the cold and from the summer heat.

By Kazakh artisans original forms of "tuskіlem" of leather and suede were manufactured. In view of the complexity of manufacturing, products of this kind are rare.

In the museum funds stored leather "tuskіlem", this is an excellent example of traditional and applied art of the Kazakhs made in the embossing technique and decorated with silver plaques, on the perimeter lined with velvet edging. The carpet manufactured in the second half of the 19th century in Almaty region.

The uniqueness of the next exhibit - suede "tuskіlem" is that, it is manufactured using a variety of materials, as well as its original compositional solution. The decor of the carpet used a variety of materials such as coral, glass beads, mother of pearl buttons and stamped plaques. The carpet border is decorated with otter fur.

carpets-col-1 carpets-col-2 carpets-col-3
Pile carpet.Kyzylorda region.Early 20th century. Leather tuskiiz (wall carpet).Almaty region. 1890. Syrmak (floor carpet).Almaty region.Early 20th century.

 

Clothing Collection

The museum houses a large collection of Kazakhs clothes, with more than 3 thousand units of storage. The collection is based on items obtained from Orenburg and Zhetysu museums, as well as collected in preparation for the decade of the Kazakh SSR, in Moscow in 1958.

The collection consists of traditional Kazakh costumes, theatrical costumes, clothing of other nationalities living in Kazakhstan, of textiles, embroidery. The Kazakh suit is divided into man's, woman's and children’s clothing; headdresses - borik, takiya, kalpak, kasaba, saukele, tymak; outerwear - coats, shekpen, beshmet; underwear - dresses, shirts, jackets, trousers; shoes - winter boots saptama, light – ichigi, shoes, galoshes. Used materials are fur, leather, fabric (silk, velvet, plush, cotton). As decoration used chain stich, braids, corals, pearls, etc. The exhibits collected from all regions of Kazakhstan, as well as from the CIS and foreign countries: Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, Mongoliaand China.

Theatrical costumes were mostly sewn in traditional Kazakh style, such as theater costumes of artists of the older generation - Zhamal Omarova, Kulyash Baiseitova, Shara Zhienkulova, and young actors dress in a more modern style - Rosa Rymbaeva, Makpal Zhunusova, Leila Alpieva. There are also clothesof ethnic groups living in Kazakhstan: Russian, Ukrainians, Germans, Poles, Uighur, Dungan, Turks, Chechens and others. The museum has rare items: beshmet (oriental quilted coat) of Fatima – spouses of Khan Zhangir, headdresses of Shokan Valikhanov and Haji Mukan, swan coat of Tazhibay Chingisovna Valikhanova, shapan (coat) of Isa Shormanov.

odezhda-col-1 odezhda-col-2 Шуба женская на лебяжьем пуху
Murak – ceremonial man’s headdress.

 Early 19th century. Belonged to the Sultan Baimukhamed Aishuakov.

Woman’s beshmet. Ural. Middle of the 19th century. Belonged to Fatima, spouse of Zhangir, Khan of Bokei Horde.  Woman’s swans down coat

 

The Jewelry Collection

In the history of the national culture the Kazakh jewelry art, rooted in antiquity has a special place. The museum fund store a large amount of jewelry of 18th – early 20th centuries, representing all regions of Kazakhstan. The collection includes more than 10,000 exhibits.

Kazakh folk masters - zergers, possessing great artistic taste, were able to make original woman's jewelry. Among the many types of woman's jewelry manufactured by folk artisans, the decorations of Western Kazakhstan tribes are distinguished. In the museum's collection among pectorals can be considered "onіrzhiek" made in Atyrau (Guriev) region in 1910 are of special interest. The onirzhiek consists of three massive plates connected by silver chains of tetrahedral weaving. The front side of the plate is gilt, decorated with large oval inlays of carnelian, and with diamond shaped pendants and edge is framed with triangles, filled by grains. A pair of old bracelets also made in Atyrau (Guriev) region differed by high craftsmanship of jewelry and great artistic merit. Pattern on the surface of the bracelet creates a play of light and shadow. Undoubtedly archaic on shape large rings "kudagizhuzіk" (matchmaker ring) of Adai artisans.

Bright polychrome colors characterized jewelry of Southern Kazakhstan; they can be combined with bright red coral, green chrysoprase, blue turquoise and yellow agate.

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Pair bracelets with rings. 20th century.

 

Onirzhiek – breast decoration. Torgai.Early 20th century.
 Matchmaker’s ring. Atyrau region. 19th century

 

Household tools and implements

Наковальня металлическая

The collection includes about 1000 species of instrumentals, tools and implements. All of these items were collected as a result of ethnographic expeditions, and there are constantly replenished by exhibits transferred to the museum by individuals. Tools and implements stored in several funds depending on the material of manufacture and use. All museum items are divided by distinctive features with regard to their use in traditional environment and location.

It should be noted, that of the agricultural and livestock tools and implementsthat are stored in the funds, there are: plows for plowing the ground; various types of shovels, pitchforks, scythes and sickles; rake and harrow for soil; carts and other details. Devices and household items: shovel for ash, poker, bellows, types of hatchets for wood: shapashot (adze), shot, planers and smoothing planes, talky - a device for the manufacture of leather, types of wood and metal pad-saw, file, sharpener, drill, pliers, vices are also housed.

 



Harness

Items in this collection areof great variety and richness of decorof the late 19th – early 20th Centuries. Saddles are not included in the mass production and are usually manufactured by order. Kazakh saddles by regional characteristics and tribal affiliationis differed, such as kokaner, kazakyer (naimaner), shoshakbas, uirekbaser, etc.

The horse equipment includes: saddle (er), stirrups (uzengі), crupper (kuiskan), breast collar (omіldіrіk), bridle (zhugen), saddlecloth (tokym), horse cloth (atzhabu), girth (tartpa). They give a good idea of the skill, aesthetic tastes of the people and traditions of caring and loving attitude to the horse, going back to centuries.

The main element of the decor of all of these items is silvered metal plates and silver plates of the various configurations. Techniques: forging, casting, openwork, carving, notching (applique) with silver, profiling, engraving, chasing, niello, enamel and inlaid with colored stones and glass.

 

Collection of Weapons and Protective Arms

Шлем – дулыға  с арабскими надписями The Collection of Weapons and Protective Armament includes samples of ancient cold steel and firearms weapons of East and West, small arms of the first half of the 20th century. Samples of ancient protective armor of Central Asia and Kazakhstan are also represented. There are rare and unique specimens of Oriental arms and defensive armor. The mirror chain of Kazakh Sultan of Minor Horde Arystan Aishuvakov - a rare example of the Kazakh protective armor, dates to the 18th century. The design and shape is unique and is a five metal planks connected by straps. The surface of the mirror chain is decorated with engraved ornaments and ayahs from the Koran. An Indian saber "shemsher" with a wavy blade and a forked tip is a rare exhibit of this collection. The blade is decorated with gold notch and floral ornaments. In India this kind of saber was used by the Mughal soldiers of Turkish origin. This exhibit concerns to late 18th-19th centuries, work of Indian artisans. A steel helmet that belonged to the Uighur Sultan Abiloglu is one of the oldest exhibits of the museum. A Sino-Tibetan type helmet dates to the 18th century. In the museum weapons and military equipment of the World War II is stored. Among them captured weapons of 8th Guards Division named after Panfilov, which became a relic of military glory of Kazakhstani people.

 

 

 

 

 

Utensils and furniture

The Collection of utensils and furniture as a result of ethnographic expeditions, as well as a donation of individualsare collected. Utensils and furniture in several funds depending on the material and useare stored. Utensils divided into two types: for cooking and household purposes. For example, cooking utensils - small and deep wooden bowls - tostagan; round and flat dish made of wood or metal; wooden and metal spoons, skimmers, ladles, cauldrons and taba–for baking, as well as metal ritual bowls with inscription from the Koran and ayahs.

Household utensils - wooden, metal buckets, torsykfor storage koumiss, shubat, airan, saba and kubi for koumiss cooking. For rituals ritual bowls depicting inscriptions from the Koran and ayahs.

The next group of items is furniture made by different techniques and materials: wood, bone, metal, inlaid with stones, leather, tin, etc. Among them are "kebezhe" (chest) for ceramic ware, "asadal" friableproducts storage, "zhukayak" for bedding storing, "zhaglan" for storage of various items, "zhastykagash" device for the head, "tosekagash" wooden bed, "adalbakan"clothes hanger.

Ожау - поварешка Ритуальная чаша  Жаглан – сундук
Ozhau – ladle Ritual dish "Zhaglan" – chest

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